Wednesday, December 4, 2019

The Formalisation Of The Social Work Practice Social Work Essay Essay Example

The Formalisation Of The Social Work Practice Social Work Essay Essay The facet of this essay is to understand the cardinal features of a profession and how it relates to the formalization of the societal work pattern. This will be turn toing the chief elements of a profession including specialised cognition which can be related theoretically cognition, in other words professionals seting theory into pattern and how it develops their competence of their work. The importance of making and preparation ; as to why making and preparation is indispensable furthermore, separating the difference between the traditional makings such as in the 1970s known as the Certificate in Social Services ( CSS ) to the current Social Work grade classs. Another constituent of a profession is the importance of liberty and how it can impact on a societal worker in footings of decision-making. For illustration, societal workers may meet liberty when it comes to commanding their ain personal businesss. However, in relation to the demands of service users, they may be issues of trouble organizing relationships with the service users as the inordinate sum of caseloads or high public and service demands. This may do an condensation within the services and the service users because the importance of liberty is holding duties to yourself and the services you offer at the same clip. The ethical guidelines as to what is and non acceptable within a profession. Associating to societal work, the essay will discourse what model that has been set up to guarantee ethical positions are taking into history. The British Association of Social Workers ( BASW ) is one of the facets that recognised the cardinal rules of ethical ethical motives and positions. Finally, the essay will discourse the different types of regulative models that were introduced to keep high criterions of attention for the demands of the service users. We will write a custom essay sample on The Formalisation Of The Social Work Practice Social Work Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Formalisation Of The Social Work Practice Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Formalisation Of The Social Work Practice Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A profession means a group of people that are specialised in a peculiar business. For illustration, an person that is a physician can be specialised in kids, therefore their business would be called baby doctors. Profession consists of professionals that have the same involvement, accomplishments based on theoretical cognition. Therefore it is of import that professionals should hold extended period of instruction to act upon the competence of their profession. Hodson and Sullivan ( 2005, p. 258 ) implies that profession is a high position and knowledge-based business that is characterised by the Hallmarks of a profession . The trademark of profession suggest profession is split into 4 chief constituents that are based on abstract, specialized cognition, liberty, Authority over low-level occupational groups and a certain grade of selflessness. Specialized cognition consists of theoretical, practical and techniques. The theoretical cognition would concentrate on theoretical guidelines as to what is expected by professionals. In dealingss to societal work, theoretical cognition is a important component to their profession as seting theory into pattern ; it helps sociables workers develop to believe critically and analytically. Oke ( 2008 ) suggest that one manner of associating theory into pattern is known as issue-based attack to acquisition ( IBL ) . IBL encourages meaningful acquisition as for illustration, treating information from a beginning can assist promote a automatic procedure of thought as it explore further on about thoughts and theorize in ways you can set the theories into pattern. By agencies of societal workers using the IBL efficaciously, it would heighten societal workers to work proactively as they would be capable of authorising schemes support the demands and wants of the service users. The competency o f cognition is a cardinal to profession as Payne ( 2005 p. 185 ) suggests professionalism, associated with increasing administration alongside increasing cognition and power. Therefore, this may associate to entry of making, the higher the making the more competent on their apprehension of seting theories into pattern. Learning new information invariably develops the self-knowledge and enables to travel in-depth of apprehension. Harris ( 2003 pp.133-4 ) argued that societal work preparation helps societal workers become a competent and accountable professionals . This may be a combination of educational establishment and societal work bureaus. The Central Council for Education and Training in Social work ( CCETSW ) supported the preparation strategy financially through the cardinal authorities. Before the mid-1980 s when the CCETSW introduced the certification in Social Services ( CSS ) , the inclination was pupils that obtained the CSS were more likely to go societal workers. Higham ( 2006, p. 16 ) argued that this meant people that worked within societal attention did nt suit in with the model with societal workers in the 1970 s. This is because obtaining the making became demanding between societal work and societal attention, hence the CCETSW was worried if there was suited sum of preparation resources available for societal attention staff that was desired to go a qualified societal worker. Matching to Horner ( 2009 p.94 -5 ) , he signified that since the outgrowth of the Diploma in Social Work ( DipSW ) in 1989 there has been an addition of societal workers. This could associate to the discontinued of the CSS making in 1992 ended and the start of preparation classs including worked-based vocational making emerged such as National Vocational Qualification ( NVQs ) . In 1992 the National Standards for Training and Development introduced the Worked-based vocational making which was made with a difference as there was no set course of study, specified programmes or examination- it was assessment based. Before there were societal attention workers that were already employed but did non accomplish a formal making as it was non regarded at that clip. Higham ( 2006 ) argued that statistics shows in the twelvemonth 2000 around 80 % of the work force did nt non obtain a making or had making that was non related to their business. This shows there was deficiency of competence within societ al attention professions which may hold compelled issues associated with insufficiency of coverage and recording processs, keeping confidentiality, truth of information and taking into history of the current policies and processs. The DipSW does non be any longer ; people that are developing to go societal workers would now necessitate The Social Work degree class to go a qualified societal worker. Chiefly, the formalization of developing based on societal work emerged from societal attention. Traditionally, society viewed societal work and societal attention as a synonymous profession. Steadily societal work had developed acknowledgment in relation to their profession which had gained them distinctive features than the societal attention profession. However, both professions overlap each other and organize a relationship together to ease people with their quality of life. Autonomy is another portion of a profession harmonizing to the four trademarks. It is common that professionals have a inclination to command their ain personal businesss based on their professional accomplishments and cognition. Social work values autonomy in footings of determination devising. For illustration, societal workers may demand liberty in footings of constructing a relationship with the service users more than the heavy caseloads they may meet as the unjust caseloads can forestall societal workers from undertaking efficaciously the issues that may take to put on the line upon service users. Roe ( 2006, p.15 ) study emphasises with societal workers because he argues that they are constrained by line direction agreements that require escalation of determination doing up a concatenation of bid in order to pull off budgets or hazard . This argues that societal workers are refrained from professional liberty as the consequence of force per unit area of their line directio n ; this suggest that line directions chief precedence in footings of determination devising is to see appropriate determination doing takes topographic point ( taking into consideration manageable budgets and the bar against hazard towards service user ) . Others may reason that there is deficiency of professional liberty within societal work because of the limitation from the populace and within the service demands. Social workers are perceived as authorized professionals that are entitled to independent determination devising in order to run into the demands of service users ; Harkness and Kadushin ( 2002, p 468 ) suggest that professional liberty is about holding duties to themselves and the services they offer. Therefore, if there was a lack of liberty within the societal workers, this would strongly wide services and societal workers would accordingly experience greater force per unit area from the populace and other bureaus of presenting their full potency due to the boundar ies of what they may meet. An issue that may originate for a societal worker is it acceptable to follow their inherent aptitude to protect and run into the demands of the service user, even though it may be unacceptable within the regulations and ordinances of the profession. Prolonging liberty in a societal work profession is imperative as it promotes societal workers to actively prosecute with other multi- bureau professionals which would hike their assurance and helped them make their full potency. In relation to a grade of selflessness, there are codifications of moralss for professionals within any business that are put in topographic point for professionals to seek counsel through competence, pattern and admiting the complexness of state of affairss. In other words, it is recognised as a systematic model as to what is ethically acceptable. On the other manus, codification of moralss within professionals offers counsel for every credible state of affairs, which means it can be perceived as generic and non the usage of specific regulations. Despite the codifications of moralss being generic, it plays a function for the societal work proviso. The British Association of Social Workers ( BASW ) introduced the codifications of moralss for societal work, values and rules that established the five chief key rules such as human self-respect and worth, societal justness, service to humanity, unity and competency ; they were put in topographic point to guarantee that in dealingss to st ruggles and revelation is honest, just and accurate. Besides to do certain professionals are compliant with the statute laws and ordinances. Despite, codifications of moralss can be misinterpreted or ignored by professionals ; non merely may the hazard of disciplinary action, but this as a consequence put the service users at hazard. However, it is of import within the societal work profession for societal workers to do mature determination every bit good as apprehension and taking into history the value of issues that societal workers may confront. It is important for professionals to follow the cognition and accomplishments gained through experience and makings in order transportation the accomplishments achieved to assist advance new functions and attacks to run intoing the demands of the service users. Within a profession there are codifications of pattern which is expected by employees to follow and set into pattern ; it normally consists of the lineations of behavior. The significance of the codifications of pattern would guarantee high criterions of their occupation functions are being met. This would non merely profit the profession as a whole but besides the employees, employers and the wider society. Comparison to the societal work profession, they have a similar construct as a scope of administrations had been put in topographic point to guarantee that it promotes high criterions within the profession. To keep the confidence, ordinance within the service ( including instruction and preparation ) and affairs of misconduct was a high precedence harmonizing to the UK authorities. These administrations included The Social Care Institute for Excellence, 2000 ( SCIE ) , The Commission for Social Care Inspection, 2004 ( CSCI ) , The General Social Care Council, 2003 ( GSCC ) and Sk ills for Care this was known as the large four Horner ( 2009, p 118 ) . Each of ordinance has their ain intent to guarantee high criterions of attention were precedence. The SCIE chief duty is to guarantee that societal attention professionals are able to place and widen cognition about good pattern such as counsel and developing professional criterions. The CSCI chief responsibility is guarantee that review and monitoring services within the wellness and societal attention services were affirmatory quality of protecting service users or patients from possible hazard of the service users or patients demands. Furthermore, The GSCC regulates societal workers including societal attention professionals by locating them onto a registry. The registry ensures merely professionals with the needed making and adhered the occupational criterions are echt to working with service users particularly the vulnerable. Furthermore, the Skills for Care modulate the preparation processes within the s ocietal sector. This may include developing makings and measuring the societal sector developing demands to guarantee competence within cognition is changeless throughout the preparation that is supplied to the societal attention and societal work professionals. Overall, the regulative models may hold different missions but they all form a relationship that supports and promotes quality criterions to the staffs, services and developing within the societal attention proviso. Regulations are of import within a profession to guarantee professionals are carry throughing the functions satisfactory and sensitively harmonizing to the public involvement. It is of import that the Social work profession should be able to place when the criterions are to some extent weakness, it should take instant action as it is their duty as a profession to take the taking function in professional administration. This will forestall drastic quandaries which can damage the profession position. To reason, to an extent societal work can be said to be a professional as comparison to a profession with a societal work profession there are similarities. In relation to knowledge, the societal work professionals would hold some grade of theoretical cognition. For illustration, harmonizing to Payne the power of professionalism involves the competency through cognition. This may reason that societal workers who obtained a societal work grade would hold higher making alongside increasing cognition and authorization as they more understanding of seting theoretical claims into pattern. In relation to developing profession necessitate preparation to maintain up to day of the month with current accomplishments, statute laws and knowledge so that they can supply a better service to their clients. Social work profession has a history of different attacks to preparation and development to a point of needed a degree alternatively of a sheepskin to go a societal worker. Professional liberty w ithin profession is about professionals covering with their ain personal businesss. Corresponding, societal work is between decision-making and taking into consideration ethical positions as to what is acceptable. To a grade of selflessness professionals would seek counsel through competence, experiences and understanding complexness of quandary. This construct is the same factor for a societal work profession as societal workers would necessitate to follow their codification of pattern coherently. To guarantee that the profession is run intoing the codifications of pattern, ordinance is maintained through administrations including the SCIE, CSCI, GSCC and Skills for attention. In general, societal work can be recognised as a profession. Furthermore, throughout the old ages Social work profession repute has been damage to extent as qualified societal workers go forthing the profession as they feel it is demanding profession.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Procter Gamble Company

Introduction Procter Gamble [PG] is a public limited company that was established in 1837 in Cincinnati, Ohio, US. The firm operates in the consumer goods industry and has managed to venture into the global market. The firm operates five main segments, which include Family Care and Baby Care, Health Care, Grooming, Beauty, Home Care and Fabric Care.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Procter Gamble Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The firm has over 121,000 employees (PG 2013). In the course of its operation, PG has managed to develop a strong market position both in the local and the international market. The firm’s success can be explained by the effective management and marketing practices that have been integrated. Moreover, the firm has adopted optimal business models, which ensure that its products are aligned with the prevailing customer needs and wants. Consequently, its products have gained substantial market acceptability (PG 2013). Vision and mission statement PG intends to position itself as the global leader with regard to consumer products and services. Moreover, the firm is committed towards providing customers with high quality products and services. Values and principles The firm has adopted a number of values and principle. Some of its core values and principles include trust, leadership and integrity. Objectives PG is focused towards achieving the following objectives To develop a strong customer base and ensure that its brands achieve market leadership. To transform its existing businesses into market leaders. To regain market leadership and growth momentum in Western Europe region. In addition to meeting the customers’ needs, PG is focused towards delivering high value to shareholders’ by maximising their wealth. Over the 175 years it has been in existence, PG has managed to survive challenging economic situations such as economic downturns and other changes emanating from the external and internal business environments. The firm cannot rule out the likelihood of such occurrences in the future considering the fact that it does not operate in isolation. Consequently, the firm may experience challenges in its quest to achieve the aforementioned objectives.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aim This report is aimed at conducting a comprehensive situational analysis of PG. This is achieved by evaluating the challenges that the firm faces and the strategies that the management team should integrate in order to enhance the firm’s competitiveness and future success. The report mainly focuses on the strategies that the firm can adopt in order to develop a high competitive advantage. Situational analysis Businesses operate in an environment that is characterised by a high rate of dynamism. One of the elements tha t characterise the modern business environment is hyper-competition. Lancaster (2005) is of the opinion that it imperative for firms’ management teams to continuously monitor the external business environment in order to adjust their firms’ competitive strategies. Ferrell Hartline (2013) are of the opinion that â€Å"a thorough situation analysis empowers the marketing manager because it encourages both analysis and synthesis of information† (p.56). Firms do have control of the external business environment. Therefore, failure to understand the external business environment may adversely affect the organisations’ competitiveness. To understand the external business environment, it is imperative for PG’s management team to take into account the cultural, economic, social, political, legal and demographic variables. This can be achieved by integrating the PESTLE and the SWOT models as illustrated below (Hiebing Cooper 2004). PESTLE Analysis Poli tical -The firm participates in political processes in its pursuit to touch the consumers’ lives. Consequently, the firm contributes in shaping public policy. -The firm is committed towards ensuring that it complies with the set state and federal laws such as the Open Government Act, and the Lobbying Disclosure Act. -The US is characterised by a high level of political stability. Consequently, PG is able to operate effectively and efficiently. -The US government has increased its effort in curbing the proliferation of counterfeit products by integrating comprehensive intellectual property laws. This has played a critical role in guarding innovation. Economic -The US is experiencing an increment in the level of its Gross Domestic Product and the National Income. This will increase the consumers’ purchasing power. -Despite the increase in consumer purchasing power, PG is experiencing pressure to reduce the price of its products. Jopson (2013) emphasises that it is impe rative for PG to provide customers with products that are affordable. -The recent economic recession has led to a significant change in the consumers’ behaviour. Bohlen, Carlotti and Mihas (2010) opine that â€Å"consumers in the US are learning to live without expensive product† (para. 1). -The firm faces a challenge in the international market arising fluctuation in the exchange rate and the rate of inflation. -Some of the developing markets that the firm markets its products, especially Africa are characterised by a low per capita income (Hattingh et al. 2012). Social -Environmental conscious consumers; consumers are increasingly becoming conscious of the environment. Consequently, it is imperative for businesses to operate in an environmental sustainable manner by avoiding pollution. PG has adopted the concept of corporate social responsibility. -Health and safety consciousness;consumers are increasingly becoming conscious of their health and safety. In the cours e of its operation, PG is committed towards improving the consumers’ nutrition and hygiene. Thus, the likelihood of PG increasing its sale revenue with regard to health and beauty products is high. Moreover, PG has teamed up with UNICEF in its quest to improve the health of babies (PG2012). -Cultural diversity; the high rate of globalisation has led to transformation with regard to the workforce, which is becoming culturally diverse. Consequently, it is imperative for organisations to adopt effective human resource management practices. PG has appreciated the concept of diversity by embracing cultural differences (Cooper 2000). Technological -The consumer packaged goods industry is experiencing a significant change arising from technological innovation. Some of these changes relates to emergence of e-commerce. -The high rate of technological innovation presents a major challenge to PG. The firm has to continuously invest in research and development in order to be successful . According to Cisco (2012), â€Å"continuous product innovation is the lifeblood of the consumer product goods industry† (p.1). Legal Environmental Climate change; The high rate of climate change has led to enactment of strict carbon tax in an effort to ensure that organisations are responsible of the carbon dioxide emitted. PG is conscious of the environment in which it operates. Environmental laws and regulations; the UK government has enacted strict rules and regulations that are aimed at protecting the environment. The laws advocate for effective waste management. SWOT and TOWs matrix SWOT Matrix Strengths Research and development;The firm strongly focuses on research and development. Market leadership; the firm has developed global market leadership with regard to detergents, beauty and health care products. Acquisitions;the firm has the capacity to acquire other firms in the consumer goods industry. Effective brand management; PG have integrated an effecti ve brand management strategy, which has enhanced its market position and brand portfolio. The firm has over 25 brands. Strong human capital base; the firm has established a strong human resource, which enhances its competitiveness. Weaknesses The firm’s competitiveness is hindered by high cost of production. The firm faces a challenge in meeting the consumers’ needs and wants as a result of different culture. Unable to protect the company’s innovative products. High product prices compared to competing products (Jopson 2013). The firm mainly focuses on high-end markets, which limits its market reach. It is difficult for the firm to achieve growth especially in mature product categories. High product recalls; PG is experiencing an increment in product recalls. Most of the firm’s products are targeted for female consumers. Loss of market; the firm is losing market at an alarming rate, which is affecting its market leadership. Counterfeit products;PG has no t been able to eliminate counterfeit products sold under its brand name. Opportunities -Market growth; the firm can attain market leadership by exploiting emerging markets such as India and China.The firm should target the middle class consumers. -New market opportunity; the firm can exploit new market segments for example by developing beauty and health products targeted for men. -Tapping new markets;the firm can increase its sales revenue by penetrating urban areas. -Adopting eco-friendly strategies; PG can increase its market leadership by going green. Strength-Opportunity Strategy The firm should consider expanding its operation in the emerging and developing markets by developing new products. PG should consider developing new products by investing in research and development. Weakness-Opportunity strategy -The firm should consider outsourcing some of its services in order to lower the cost of production. This will improve the competitiveness of its products. -The firm shou ld invest in IPR in order to protect its products from being counterfeited -PG should focus on expanding its market to low-income consumers. – The firm has to continuously ensure that it monitors market changes so as to attain adjust its market trends. -PG should target new consumer groups such as men in order to increase its sales revenue. Threats Intense competition; PG is experiencing intense competition especially from Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever hence leading to a decline in PG market share (Jopson 2013). Substitute products; the firm is experiencing an increment in the number of substitute products, which are retailed at a price that is lower than that of PG. Private labels;growth of private labels presents a major threat to the firm’s competitiveness and global market share. Economic recession; change in consumer behaviour as a result of the 2008/2009 economic recession. Increase in the cost of raw materials Strength-Threat strategy -The firm should ensure that its products are aligned with the consumers’ needs and wants. -PG should invest in continuous product improvement in order to improve their competitiveness – Weakness-Threat strategy -The firm should invest in cost-effective operational strategies in order to improve the quality and competitiveness of its products. Core competencies According Boone (Kurtz Boone 2013), core competencies are critical in an organisation’s marketing practises because they enable an organisation to optimally position itself. P G’s success is based on a number of core competencies, which include. Source: (PG 2013)Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Procter Gamble Company specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Porters’ five forces According Stonehouse and Snowdon (2007), the five forces model enables a firm’s management team to determine the attractiveness of a particular market and hence the potential of attaining its desired level of profitability. The degree of industry attractiveness varies from one industry to another. The Porter’s model is comprised of five main dimensions, which include the threat of new entrant, buyer and seller bargaining power, degree of rivalry and threat of substitute. Below is an analysis of the Porter’s five forces with specific reference to PG Group. Degree of rivalry-High The firm operates in an environment that is characterised by a high degree of rivalry (PG 2013). Yannapoulos (2011) is of the opinion that â€Å"competition forces companies to constantly engage in offensive and defensive marketing strategies† (p.1). The rivalry emanates from the regional, local and global firms that have established operations in the industry. PG competes against organisations that deal with private labels and branded products. The firm’s main competitors include Colgate-Palmolive, Revlon, Kimberly-Clark Johnson Johnson and Unilever. The large number of competitors gives consumers a wide range of options to select from (Drummond Ensor 2009). Consumers select products on the basis of their price, quality, and the strength of the brand amongst other factors. PG Group is experiencing an increment in competition emanating from non-branded products, which are sold at a lower price. Thus, low-income consumers can afford diverse health and wellness products (Rehtmeyer 2010). Threat of new entrants-moderate According to Rehtmeyer (2010), the consumer goods industry is characterised by a low threat of entry. New entrants do not have the capability to rival big and well established entities such as PG, which are adequately capitalised. Another factor that acts as a barrier to entry relates to the high cost of research and development that the firms are required to undertake (Rehtmeyer 2010). New entrants must ensure that their products are effectively differentiated. The industry is in its mature stage thu s making it less attractive to new entrants (Doole Lowe 2012).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Threat of substitute-Low to moderate The consumer goods industry is characterised by a low threat of substitute products. According to Rehtmeyer (2010), most firms in the industry deal with necessities, which do not have perfect substitutes. Supplier bargaining power- low PG derives its competitiveness from partnerships and joint venture. Consequently, the firm is able to invest in research and development (Rehtmeyer 2010). Moreover, the firm has the capacity to control its suppliers because of its large size. Consequently, the firm sets standards, which suppliers are required to adhere to in the course of supplying the raw materials (Serena 2013). Buyer bargaining power-moderate PG mainly depend on Wal-Mart and other business affiliates in its quest to generate revenue. It is estimated that 15% of the firm’s sales originate from Wal-Mart. Organisational consumers such as Wal-Mart have a relatively low buyer bargaining power compared individual consumers who have the option o f selecting competing products. Therefore, the industry’s has a moderate buyer bargaining power. Source: (Rehtmeyer 2010) Market commoditisation and innovation According to Ferrell and Hartline (2013), the consumer goods industry is increasingly becoming commoditised. Most of the products offered by competing firms are similar. For example, the products have similar features and they have minimal price differences. Ferrell and Hartline (2013) postulates that â€Å"commoditisation is a consequence of mature industries where slowing innovation, extensive product assortment, excess supply and frugal consumers force margins to the floor† (p.2). According to the company’s Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Lafley, it is imperative for the firm to review its product differentiation strategy. This will ensure that the firm’s products remain unique and relevant to the consumers (Jopson 2013). Commoditisation of an industry presents a major challenge to industry playe rs. This arises from the fact that the competing firms have to ensure that they adopt effective differentiation strategies in order to be competitive. The consumer goods industry in the US is experiencing a high rate of commoditisation as a result of its lucrative nature, which is increasing the intensity of competition. More firms are venturing into the industry in an effort to exploit the industry’s profitability. Consequently, it has become difficult for firm’s such as PG to successfully differential itself (Pulendran, Speed Widing 2002). In order to survive in such an industry, it is imperative for industry players such as PG to formulate strategies that will attract and retain customers. This calls for organisations to be innovative. One of the ways through which the firms can achieve this is by investing in value-added strategies. The firm’s management team should conduct a comprehensive consumer market research in order to determine what the consumersâ⠂¬â„¢ needs and wants. Secondly, the firm’s research and development department should be adequately innovative in order to develop products that are customised. Such a strategy will improve the effectiveness and efficiency with which the firm addresses the customers’ value. Such an analysis will enable PG respond to the consumers’ unarticulated needs hence improving their level of loyalty. Customising its products will also enhance the firm’s capacity to survive in a market that is mature. Alternatively, PG can also consider integrating the concept of targeted extension, which entails adding value to the firm’s core products and marketing them to specific market segments in order to meet the desired market needs (Wierenga 2008). Developing competitive advantage In order to remain competitive, it is imperative for P G Group to consider improving its competitive advantage. According to Davidson and Keegan (2004) â€Å"competitive advantage is achie ved whenever your company does something better than competitors† (p. 167). Thus, it is fundamental for PG to develop it competitive advantage in order to survive in the long term. PG can develop its competitiveness by adopting the strategies proposed by the Ansoff Matrix. The advantages of these strategies are discussed herein. Market development PG should consider investing in market development strategies. According to McDonald, Brian Ward (2007), market development strategies entail marketing existing products to new markets. This entails identifying a new customer group to whom a firm markets its product to. PG mainly markets its products to female consumers. However, it is imperative for the firm’s management team to consider marketing its products to men. Moreover, the firm can achieve market development by identifying potential markets that it can enter. To achieve this, PG should focus on entering the emerging and developing markets. Consequently, the firm sho uld abolish its centralised operational strategy (Jopson 2013). Some of the markets that the firm should consider include Brazil, China, Russia and India. Prior to entering new markets, PG should conduct a comprehensive market research in order to determine the prevailing market potential. According to Jopson (2013), consumers in the developing economies are increasing consumption of household and personal consumer products despite the poor economic performance. PG should also ensure that it develops a comprehensive understanding of the target markets’ culture, and consumption behaviour. This will improve the likelihood of its products gaining sufficient market penetration. Product diversification Currently, PG specialises in five main market segments, which include Family Care and Baby Care, Health Care, Grooming, Beauty, Home Care and Fabric Care. It is essential for the firm’s management team to consider diversifying its product portfolio. This will improve the like lihood of the firm attracting a new customer group. In its product diversification strategy, PG should focus on Fast-Moving-Consumer Goods [FMCG]. This will minimise the need of the firm to develop new capabilities and resources. Currently, the firm specialises in producing high-end products. To increase its customer base, it is imperative for the firm’s management team to consider targeting low-income consumers. This will enable the firm increase its sales revenue. Furthermore, product diversification will caution the firm against macro-environmental changes hence enhancing its financial sustainability. Product development Firms in the consumer goods industry are experiencing a challenge arising from change in consumer behaviour. The consumers’ product tastes and preferences are changing at an alarming rate. According to Wright (2006), firms that specialise in production of consumer goods are experiencing an increment in pressure to ensure that their products are inno vative and are aligned to their needs and wants. Wright (2006) further opines that â€Å"failure to address the consumers’ needs and wants may lead to loss of sales and to a complete demise of an organisation† (p.14). To survive in such an environment, it is imperative for the firms’ management team to increase its investment in research and development. The research and development will enable PG to undertake continuous and new product development. In its product development efforts, the firm should consider enhancing the content of its products. Furthermore, PG should improve its product packaging. According to Wright (2006), product packaging plays a critical role in enhancing the attractiveness of a product, which is a quintessential element in an organisation’s effort to build its brand. Investment in new and continuous product innovation will contribute towards improvement in the firm’s ability to attract and retain customers. According to Jo pson (2013), it is important for the firm to ensure that the new products are successfully launched in the market. Previously, PG has experienced botched product launches, for example the Pamper Dry Max. Furthermore, the firm experienced a challenge in its quest to launch the Tide Pods laundry (Jopson 2013). Market penetration McDonald, Brian Ward (2007) posit that market penetration entails marketing an existing product or service to an existing market. One of the strategies that the firm can adopt in its quest to achieve sufficient market penetration entails targeting the competitors’ customers. Adopting market penetration strategies will contribute towards improvement in the firm’s market share. Despite these benefits, there are a number of challenges associated with market penetration. First, targeting the competitors’ customers will increase the degree of rivalry between PG and its competitors, which might culminate in price wars hence leading to a decline in the industry’s profitability. Conclusion and recommendations The report shows PG operates in an environment that is very dynamic. Despite the challenges faced, PG has managed to survive the transformations emanating from the external business environment. One of the challenges faced by the firm relates to increment in the intensity of competition. Some of its main competitors include Kimberly-Clark, Colgate Palmolive and Johnson Johnson. Most of the industry players have adopted aggressive operational and competitive strategies such as continuous product improvement and new product development in an effort to meet the consumers’ needs. Consequently, the industry has become commoditised. Moreover, the industry’s transformation also emanates from the change in consumer behaviour. To survive in such an industry, it is essential for PG’s management team adopt effective growth strategies. Some of the strategies that the firm should consider are outlined b elow. The firm should consider expanding its market by venturing into the developing and emerging markets. Some of the markets that the firm should focus include Russia, Brazil, India and China. Market expansion will enable the firm maximise its sales revenue. Moreover, the firm will be able to achieve economies of scale. PG should also consider integrating the concept of product diversification. However, the firm should focus on fast-moving consumer goods in order to successfully exploit its capabilities and core competences. This strategy will enable PG to attract new customer groups. It is also important for the firm to consider developing products and services that are aligned with the consumers’ needs and wants. The firm can achieve this by conducting a comprehensive consumer market research. As a result, the firm will be able to deliver high value to consumers. Moreover, PG will be able to differentiate its products. Reference List Bohlen, B, Carlotti, S Mihas, L 201 0, How the recession has changed US consumer behaviour, CISCO: Intelligent innovation in the consumer packaged goods industry; faster, cheaper, local 2012,,d.bGE Cooper, L 2000, ‘Strategic marketing planning for radically new products’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 64 no.1, pp.1-16. Davidson, H Keegan, W 2004, Offensive marketing; an action guide to gaining competitive advantage, Routledge, New York. Doole, I Lowe, R 2012, CIM coursebook 08/09; strategic marketing decision, Routledge, New York. Drummond, G Ensor, J 2009, Introduction to marketing concepts, Routledge, New York. Ferrell, O Hartline, M 2013, Marketing strategy; text and cases, Cengage, Mason, Ohio. Hiebing, R Cooper, S 2004, The one day marketing plan; organising and completing a plan that works, McGraw-Hill, New York. Hattingh, D, Russo, B, Basorun, A Wamelen, A 2012, The rise of the African consumer,,d.Yms Jopson, B 2013, Procter and Gamble; time to freshen up, Kurtz, D Boone, L 2013, Boone and Kurtz contemporary marketing, Cengage, Mason, Ohio. Lancaster, G 2005, Management of marketing, Routledge, New York. McDonald, M, Smith, B Ward, K 2007, Marketing due diligence; reconnecting strategy to share price, Butterworth, Boston. PG: Core strengths 2013, PG: Pampers and UNICEF; working together for healthy babies 2013, PG: Supplier engagement 2013, Pulendran, S, Speed, R Widing, R 2002, ‘Marketing planning, market orientation and business performance’, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 37 no. 3, pp. 476-497. Rehtmeyer, J 2010, The Procter and Gamble company, M.J Neeley School of Business, New York. Serena, N 2013, PG, big companies pinch suppliers on payments, Stonehouse, G Snowdon, B 2007, ‘Competitive advantage revisited’, Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 16, pp. 256-275. Wierenga, B 2008, Handbook of marketing models, RSM Erasmus University, Rotterdam. Wright, R 2006, Consumer behaviour, Cengage Learning, New York. Yannopoulos, P 2011, ‘Defensive and offensive strategies for market success’, International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol. 2, no. 13, pp. 1-12. This report on Procter Gamble Company was written and submitted by user Lexie Pate to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

frankensteine3333 essays

frankensteine3333 essays In Shelly's novel, Victor Frankenstein learns how to "infuse a spark of being into lifeless things". He uses this knowledge and creates a living thing. The creature is so hideous that "not even Dante could not have conceived". From the moment he is animated, the wretched creature is an outcast. He is not human; he was not born to a mother or father, or was created by God. Throughout the novel several situations occur that allow the readers to see that the monster isn't normal. In one instance he causes havoc in a village by simply appearing to the villagers. But Shelley also allows us to see many of the "normal" characteristics the creature has. While observing the De Laceys, the monster learns how to speak and read. Shelley showed that nothing is normal. The creature at first was very different from the humans, but at the end he was the most human character in the novel. There was a major personality change in the creature. He at first had serene thoughts, and also never performed any bad deeds. For example, instead of eating animals, he ate nuts and berries. He thought they shouldn't be harmed because they did nothing to him. But later in the novel the creature learned to hate, a vice that differentiates humans from animals. An animal is not able to hate another, but a human can. At this instance we know the creature is normal because he acts like a human, thinks like a human, and feels like a human. ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Pros and Cons about global warming Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Pros and Cons about global warming - Essay Example is a reality that some countries are affected by extreme climatic conditions such as frequent droughts, floods as well as hurricanes while the resources to combat these impacts are limited. Against this background, I was fascinated to choose this topic for my research paper from the understanding that the activities of human beings are the greatest contributors to global warming since my father is currently running a chemical trading business in South Korea. It is a company that specializes in the trading of environment-friendly chemical products. What also fascinated me were its innovative environmental systems, such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from the chimneys and roofs of factories, houses and buildings. Therefore, global warming and keeping the earth clean has always been an interesting topic for me to research in a bid to learn more about the real problem associated with global warming and how can it seriously i mpact on human life. The issues of climate change have become topical in many societies, but there is need to generate more knowledge about the effects of global warming and what to do about the causes of global warming. Global warming and climate change are world wide issues related to our environment that cannot be easily or quickly ignored anymore. In February 2007, the United Nations released a scientific report that concludes that global warming is happening and will continue to happen for centuries. The report also stated with 90% certainty that the activity of humans has been the primary cause of increasing temperatures over the past few decades (United Nations 2007). The relationship between human civilization and the earth has often been seen as catastrophic where the activities of men are colliding with the planet’s ecological system resulting in extreme changes particularly in the climate. Gore (2006) states that, â€Å"In every corner of the globe- on land and in

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Future Career Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Future Career - Essay Example I have always had a way with children. Their curiosity and complete lack of inhibition has fascinated me and I have enjoyed hours of fun and frolic with kids. I am a good listener and am patient and tactful. I enjoy an excellent rapport with kids due to my sense of humor and storytelling skills. I can be perceptive, and time spent with children never tires me - in fact I find it a refreshing change from work or study. I believe this attachment to children has been a major factor in my chosen career options of either Early Childhood Teacher or Children’s psychologist. Early childhood teaching is a specialized field; hence I shall have to pursue a Bachelor’s degree in Early Childhood Education. I shall also have to look up the requirements of the state where I shall want to work to attain further teaching credentials. This will enable me to get a job as an early childhood educator. I may have to begin as an assistant in order to gain some experience before I can be hired as a teacher. I shall also have to learn special skills to be able to descend to the level of my young charges and view life from their perspective in order to hold their interest and make learning a rewarding and enriching experience for them. Besides, I shall need to improve my arts and crafts skills so as to increase their creativity and learn to think on my feet in order to be able to handle sticky situations. The first years of a child’s life are crucial because here the foundations of their social skills, sense of self, moral values as well as perception of the ir surroundings and cognitive skills are laid. This is also the time when the human brain grows at its fastest pace. Therefore these first few years are critical to nurture healthy development of a child’s physical and mental abilities. At this point in their lives, when they will probably be interacting with people outside their immediate family for the first time; I shall have to adapt to the emotional needs

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Decolonization Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Decolonization - Research Paper Example olutions to present peace had been placed and failed because of conflicting ideologies that had been held by nations that lacked the desire to honor freedom. Reed had been the order of the day with the struggle presented in establishing the needed dominance within the established grounds (Bolton 451). The aspect of decolonization had been extended to the need to break the bonds established before to the onset of WW1 when nations had scrambled to obtain territories within the Asian and American continents. The concept ensured freedom and establish the independence needed to predict the ideology in upholding human rights. The decolonization process ensured the eradication of colonial dominance within the territories and uphold independent decision making. Decolonization has also been extended to be reflected to the period that presented the needed wave to establish free opinions to the rule of law. To achieve the fete, there was the realized battle to obtain the rights of presenting do minance and achieve the desired support from external bodies willing to maintain balance. Decolonization ensured that the rights of the individuals had been maintained to establish strong bonds within the societal setting and eliminate the harsh rule of colonization. After the famous war in 1914-1918, there was the realization from the nations that had been under harsh colonial government that the European nations had presented could be destabilized. His entity yielded the ideology to seek for freedom and promote the prevalence of justice and self governance. Europeans had travelled the borders with the mission to integrate their technology and religion in less developed societies before the beginning of the famous war. The solution had been included in presenting a uniform measure to present a stable society that would follow the set rules (Hendrick 468). However, as the war progressed, there had been the subjections realized in the methods applied in ruling the less advanced

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Principles of Green Design in Architecture

The Principles of Green Design in Architecture In modern communities, healthy environment is the foundation of our daily lives. However, environmental problems are becoming serious. Much research illustrate that the pollution from architecture, from construction to operation, is one of the main contributors of these problems. The world famous design theorist Victor Papanek claimed in the 1960s, that designers should consider the limited resources around the world to protect the planet. This was the first announcement globally promoting the set of principals of green design. This assignment will firstly explain the principles of green design, then show several applications of these principles and finally evaluate the contribution of these principles to society . According to Yeang and Spector, green design is based on four principles, the green principle, the grey principle, the blue principle and the red principle, which aim to reduce contamination to the environment, recycle waste and reuse energy. The green principle is the principle about interconnecting natural areas and buildings. The grey principle refers to the circular systems in the buildings, such as energy or electric power systems. The blue principle is about the water cycle which should be designed to close the loop, which means that try best to reduce or reuse waste water. Finally, the red principle suggest designers should meet the requirements of customers.When applying these principles in architecture, it means sustainable design to comply with economic, social and ecological sustainability. The green principle states that whenever and wherever possible, the existent natural eco-system should be reserved to a great extent during the period of designing. This has been highlighted by Yeang and Spector (2011), â€Å"having an eco-infrastructure in the master plan is vital†. The obvious benefit, such as providing cleaner air and improving water supply, of designing under the green principle is significant. However, a hidden potential, for instance, being a conditioner of climate change and keeping water from washing away, is also meaningful. As will be illustrated later, designing under green principle bring citizens better lives. The grey principle is the principle which is frequently used in urban engineering. Applying it into architecture aims to regard buildings as a small city. Therefore, buildings should produce parts of energy by themselves, which can lighten the burden of government as numerous pressing global social issues have been caused by limitation of resource. The best explaination of this is the application of solar energy. The third principle of green design is the blue principle, which can also be called the water principle. This principle claims that â€Å"new technological trajectories for the water infrastructure should be applied (Hiessl et al 2001)†. As the predicament of global shortage, it should be used in cyclic way. â€Å"Water used in the built environment needs to be recovered and re-used wherever possible†(Yeang and Spector). As a result, blue principle is an additional built-up principle for green design. The last principle of green design is the red principle, which is a principle of serving human communities directly. Applying this principle, designer should realize what citizens really require, whether they are satisfied with your design. It is important for a designer to remind themselves as a service provider. â€Å"What we do not know can hurt us†(Bondan Sosnowchik, 2007). â€Å"This is the social and human dimension that is often missing in the work of green designers† (Yeang and Spector). As the environmental problems become more and more serious, green design principles have been applied more frequently. Modern buildings always contain element of green design more or less. Designers usually apply principles of green design in their design in order to improve the quality of them. The particular examples below cover the application of the four fundamental principles of green design and demonstrate evidences of the principles of green design that should be used more widely. With the speedy construction, increasing population and rapid-developing transportations, the phenomenon of urban heat island effect become significant, which lead to the environmental deterioration of life quality. Therefore, the applying of green principle require action imperatively. According to this, vertical planting have been utilized in common design. Vertical planting is a technique that uses different resources to allow plants to extend upward rather than grow along the surface of city. In some cases, no support frame of any kind is needed as the plants naturally grows upwards. The plants outside the building provide a layer to protect buildings from sunshine, which is benefit for preserving the temperature inside the buildings. Research demonstrate that buildings with vertical planting would keep the temperature 3-9 degrees lower than without that. With the help of vertical planting, the burden of air- conditioners could reduce 12.7% approximately. It can be seen in some o f modern constructions that green roofs, walls and facades are some of the City of Melbourne’s latest tools in the work to adapt city to climate change. As the rapidly developing of green design, in order to applying the grey principle more effectively, the Building Information Modifying technology, based on the 3D technology, a new building design model collecting and managing effectively all kinds of information in the entire building life circle, have been exploited to assist architects to design recycle systems of buildings(Liu Liu 2013).Applying this new technology, designers could be able to design the circular energy or electric systems inside the buildings, such as solar energy system, to decline the negative effects to environment and to achieve sustainable building design. Furthermore, wind catcher, a suitable ventilation means for houses to creates pleasant airflow in rooms, hall and basement, is another latest technology to reduce the energy of a building requiring to function normally. In addition, while hot water is the largest component of residential energy costs after heating and cooling, a solar domestic water heat ing system that is well designed will provide 50-80% of hot water needs, depending on the building’s geographical location and the time of year. Water, often called the source of life, provides a valuable resource to be celebrated in the process of green design. According to Art Ludwig, only about 6 per cent of water people use for drinking. Consequently, potable water should not use for irrigation or sewage. The Monterey Bay Shores approach to water management is a representative example show how blue principle working. In Monterey Bay Shores’ water systems, main water sources is from the rain, which is collected by a storage and used in swimming pools, toilets, spa, laundry and bath after different processes of treatment. An additional water supplying line is municipal water supply, which provides potable water for drinking and cooking. Finally, all the graywater( used water) after treatments will be irrigated for the plants of green roofs and green walls. Furthermore, the recycling system in Bird’s Nest is another example. With the help of six water collection and storage tanks with a capacity of 12,000 cu m over 70 per cent of the water supply at Bird’s Nest is recycled water, while 23 per cent is recycled rainwater, which will be used for washing the stadium, road, toilet, garage and irrigating the land around the venue. Recent years, residents in modern cities complain more frequently about the crowded sky scrapes. The grim tall buildings bring them the felling of choking. As the quality of people’s lives improved, a place for living is not the basic requirement of customers. The happiness and comfort taken by the style of space have been regard as more important. It tends to be a tendency that applying the red principle in modern design of architecture to satisfied the customers. Bauhaus Design School, the origin of modern design, for some, is synonymous with the greater term modernism. For others, the Bauhaus is a type of font or an architectural design style. â€Å"Architecture is designed for human† is one of the most prominent view of Bauhaus. Architecture is service for people and should be combined with environment to become a gorgeous place for living. In German and Sweden, numerous buildings are designed with large dimensions but amiable, moderate and comfortable. The architec ture to people is what human to nature. While nature never change following the human’s minds, building designers should consider more about the suggests from residents. Otherwise, a eye-attractive design without suitableness for people could not be treat as a successful design. The four principles of green design described above have being applied successfully in many parts of the world and have produced a significant reduction in environmental damage. To be more specific, the mainly benefits of applying principles of green design could be divided into three parts: economic benefits, environmental benefits and social benefits. Firstly, for the economic aspect, green buildings typically have lower annual cost for energy, water, maintenance and other operating expenses. Although the first costs may be higher, the payback would be worthy as the time goes by. Secondly, as original buildings use the energy and produce waste, green buildings could produce energy by themselves and reuse the waste to minimize the pollutant. Furthermore, in social respect, the principles using in green design bring the improvement in the quality of life, health and well-being. Residents in modern community would feel more health, comfortable and satisfactory to live in a green build ing. In conclusion, green design is helpful to relieve the pressing global environmental problems while the situation become increasing serious, such as the urban heat island effect and greenhouse effect. Applying the principles in design, the cost of operating buildings would reduce by a margin, for instance, the expenditure of using air-conditioners will decrease sharply. Furthermore, applying principles of green design could take numerous benefits to people’s health lives. For instance, plants can produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide, which suits for human that need oxygen every second particularly. Principles of green design enable people to live in a more comfortable and sustainable environment, which could improve their work efficience and bring them a safer and more environmental friendly future. References Panaek, V 1970, Design for the real world, Sweden. Yeang, K Spector, A(ed) 2011, Green design: from theory to practice, black dog publishing, London, UK. Bondan, P Sosnowchik, K 2007, Sustainable Commercial Interiors, Spain. Henry, Y 2010, An Introduction to Green Building Information Modeling (BIM). Hiessl, H, Walz, R Toussaint, D, Design and Sustainability Assessment of Scenarios of Urban Water Infrastructure Systems, ISI, Germany.